We want to tell you about a wonderful land - Azerbaijan and its unique nature, its centuries-old culture and history, and of the ancient people inhabiting this land, his life, customs and traditions which absorbed the elements of various cultures and civilizations.
The history of ancient Azerbaijan is built on archeological, ethnographic, anthropological and written historical resources. Archeological funds gave the excellent opportunity to study the history of material culture of Azerbaijan, while ethnographic materials revealed in historical sources and expeditions inform about traditions, material-moral culture, former forms of ruling, family relations, etc.
The territory of Azerbaijan is rich with archeological monuments which prove it to be one of the regions of the primitive men's first settlement. Archeological finds of the caves of Azikh, Taglar, Damjili, Dashsalahli, Gazma(Nakhchivan) and other monuments, the shin-bone of the most ancient Azikh man (Azikhantrop) lived 300-400 thousand years ago in the Age of Asheul prove the above mentioned theory.
In addition, Azeri people has the ancient state system establishment which dates to 5 000 years. Acceptance of Islam made a great change in the history of Azerbaijan. Islam turned a strong push in the formation of unique people and the language and quickened this process. In May 28th of 1918 the northern Azerbaijan witnesses the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan --the first Parliamentary Republic in the history of the people of Azerbaijan, the first democratic, legal and secular state in the whole East and Islamic world.
Azerbaijani is the country of ancient culture. The Oghuz tribes, having migrated and settled in the region, found here deep-rooted traditions of culture created in the course of centuries by efforts of many generations, and the Oghuzes in their turn enriched it with the traditions of All-Turkic culture.
Talent and creative genius of our people are reflected in the books "Kitabi Dada Gorgud", "Oghuz-name", "Koroghlu" and other early literary monuments.
This fertile, generous and kind land is the cradle of many enlighteners, philosophers, scholars, poets, architects, musicians, artists. The legends say that Zoroaster was born here. The Azerbaijan land gave the world such outstanding people as Nizami Ganjavi, Khagani Shirvani, Bahmanyar, Nasimi, Fizuli, Nasiraddin Tusi, Shakh Ismail Khatai, Molla Panah Vagif, A.Bakikhanov, M.F.Akhundov, M.A.Sabir, J.Mammadguluzadeh, Husein Javid, J.Jabbarly, Samad Vurghun, Aliagha Vahid, Rasul Rza and many others.
Bright, multicoloured palette of nature of the native land has found its reflection in the canvases of Sattar Bahlulzadeh, Tahir Salahov, Togrul Narimanbeyov, Mikail Abdullayev and other talented masters of the brush.Folk music, mugams have inspired our outstanding composers - Uzeir Hajibeyov, Muslim Magomaev, Gara Garaev, Fikret Amirov, Niyazi, Arif Melikov, world-known singers Bul-Bul and Rashid Behbudov.
Famous Azerbaijani carpets, as if absorbed all colours of nature, all stages of the history of native land, today like magic flying carpets, crossing the frontiers of time, spread around the world glorifying the craftsmanship of our carpet-makers.
Many museums of the world have on display the items of arts and crafts of metal, ceramic, silk and wood made by the Azerbaijani craftsmen.
Science and education in Azerbaijan have deep roots. The establishment of the Baku State University in 1919 and the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences in 1945 played a key role in the development of science, education and culture in the republic. Today the interests of our scientists range from the problems of the Caspian Sea and space research to mysteries of human brain and many other fields.
Tens of higher and technical educational establishments, thousands of schools, colleges and Lyceums, a theological gymnasium - that is the spectrum of educational orientation of Azerbaijan today.
One of the most important problems at which the Azerbaijani scientists are working now is the ecology and preservation of the Caspian Sea and other regions of the republic. The scientists have succeeded in preserving unique natural parks - Kisylagaj, Shirvan, Zagatala, Ag-gol, Hirkan and others.
The structure of industry of Azerbaijan for decades has been determined by oil-production, petrochemistry and refining, as for agriculture - by cotton, grapes, fruits and vegetables growing and livestock-breeding.
On the turn of the 20th century Baku becomes the oil centre of the world. Businessmen from all over the world come here. Oil has turned once provincial town of Baku into one of the nicest cities of Europe. At that time outstanding architects of Europe, Russia and the East were working and creating here. The look of the city boasts organically interwoven both Gothic, Baroque and moresque styles and the architecture of the national Absheron school. It was the fusion of these various trends that gave life to a unique architectural style, so-called Baku "eclectism".
From the end of the 19th century, thanks to efforts of the Azerbaijani intellectuals and industrialists, with a view to develop culture, education and health care, some philanthropic institutions were set up. Beginning from 1905 their number increased and the range of their activity widened considerably. The establishment fund of these institutions was made up of donations by rich merchants and industrialists, incidentally, the foundation of the most prestigious in the world Nobel Prize was laid down in Baku. Among the benefactors of that time Haji Zeynalabdin Taghiyev was especially notable. Millionaires Musa Nagiyev, Shamsi Asadullaev, Murtuza Mukhtarov and others were also participating actively in charity deeds. Thanks to their efforts new public buildings were put up, new schools and gymnasiums opened, national dramatic art, health care, the press got boost in their development, the city's water-supply was improved. Gifted young people were sent to study at the best universities of Europe and Russia.
The authority and fame of Azerbaijan in the international world is growing continuously. Azerbaijan Republic is known all over the world as democratic, legal and secular state. The constitution of our state, being the result of Heydar Aliyev's mind, is one of the most democratic and perfect one in the world. The stability in our country and carrying out internal reforms positively affect the extension of the international relations. Azerbaijan Republic, basing its foreign policy on principles of equality and mutual interest, is an open act state for all the states of the world.
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